Kerala has the highest population of Christians among all the states of India. [471] Onam falls in the Malayalam month of Chingam (August–September)[472] and marks the commemoration of the homecoming of King Mahabali. They united to form the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949. Kerala is home to the largest domesticated population of elephants in India—about 700 Indian elephants, owned by temples as well as individuals. [361] Kerala has the lowest proportion of homeless people in rural India – 0.04%,[362] and the state is attempting to reach the goal of becoming the first "Zero Homeless State", in addition to its acclaimed "Zero landless project", with private organisations and the expatriate Malayali community funding projects for building homes for the homeless. [58] Scholars hold that Keralaputra is an alternate name of the Cheras, the first dominant dynasty based in Kerala. The district receives most of its annual rainfall in this season. [321] In the state, the rate of population growth is India's lowest, and the decadal growth of 4.9% in 2011 is less than one third of the all-India average of 17.64%. [169] Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands. The eastern region of Kerala consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow. [383] According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's residents were Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.32% follow another religion or have no religious affiliation. The state has numerous backwaters, which are used for commercial inland navigation. [227] A mining sector of 0.3% of GSDP involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite. [388][389] Notable has been the occurrence of Cheraman Perumal Tajuddin, the Hindu King that moved to Arabia to meet the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam. [188] The government is organised into the three branches: The local government bodies; Panchayat, Municipalities and Corporations have existed in Kerala since 1959, however, the major initiative to decentralise the governance was started in 1993, conforming to the constitutional amendments of central government in this direction. The part Agasthyarkoodam, which is the second-highest peak in the Western Ghats (1,869 m or 6,132 ft above sea level), lies in the district. At the time of Indian independence movement in the early 20th century, there were two major princely states in Kerala-Travancore State and the Kingdom of Cochin. [citation needed] As a result, women in Kerala have had a much higher standing and influence in the society. Physical features. [562] Many advertisements branded Kerala with the tagline Kerala, God's Own Country. [41], Another much earlier Puranic character associated with Kerala is Mahabali, an Asura and a prototypical just king, who ruled the earth from Kerala. [citation needed], The climate of Thiruvananthapuram district is generally hot tropical. T. C. Yohannan, Suresh Babu, Sinimol Paulose, Angel Mary Joseph, Mercy Kuttan, K. Saramma, K. C. Rosakutty, Padmini Selvan and Tintu Luka are the other Arjuna Award winners from Kerala. Weil, Shalva. [184], There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur. The child marriages are particularly higher among the Muslim community. [397][398], Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a few fortresses on the Malabar Coast. [496] Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar and Kerala Varma Valiakoi Thampuran are noted for their contribution to Malayalam prose. The economy of Kerala is the 10th-largest in India with ₹7.82 trillion (US$110 billion) in gross state domestic product (GSDP) and a per capita GSDP of ₹204,000 (US$2,900). At present the corporation has 5373 buses running on 4795 schedules.[295][296]. [105] However, the Portuguese suffered setbacks from attacks by Zamorin forces in Malabar region; especially from naval attacks under the leadership of Kozhikode admirals known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. Physical geography Gangkhar Puensum from Ura La, Bhutan The Himalaya mountains of Bhutan dominate the north of the country, where peaks can easily reach 7,000 metres (22,966 ft); the highest point in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum , which has the distinction of being the highest unclimbed mountain in the world, at 7,570 metres (24,840 ft). [245], The Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board is a government owned financial institution in the state to mobilize funds for infrastructure development from outside the state revenue, aiming at overall infrastructure development of the state. The land lies between 8° 18' North Latitude and between 74° 52' and 77° 24' East Longitude. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj. [114][115], In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala. It has deserts, coastal areas, mountains and plateaus. [380] Kerala has the greatest consumption of alcohol in India. [citation needed] From the 1990s, liberalisation of the mixed economy allowed Licence Raj restrictions against capitalism and foreign direct investment to be lightened, leading to economic expansion and an increase in employment. [20] The state has witnessed significant emigration, especially to the Arab states of the Persian Gulf during the Gulf Boom of the 1970s and early 1980s, and its economy depends significantly on remittances from a large Malayali expatriate community. The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. [356] In respect of female empowerment, some negative factors such as higher suicide rate, lower share of earned income, child marriage,[357] complaints of sexual harassment and limited freedom are reported. The highland regions on the east and the northeast comprises the Western Ghats. Some of the popular Malayalam television channels are Media One TV, Asianet, Asianet News, Asianet Plus, Asianet Movies, Surya TV, Kiran TV, Mazhavil Manorama, Manorama News, Kairali TV, Kairali WE, Kairali People, Flowers, Kappa TV, Amrita TV, Reporter TV, Jaihind, Jeevan TV, Mathrubhumi News, Kaumudy TV, Shalom TV, and Janam TV. Most of the park consists of broad volcanic plateaus with an average elevation of about 7,875 feet (2,400 metres). Geography Physical geography. [91] For local administration, the empire was divided into provinces under the rule of Naduvazhis, with each province comprising a number of Desams under the control of chieftains, called as Desavazhis.[90]. [278] Around 1.050 million fishermen haul an annual catch of 668,000 tonnes as of a 1999–2000 estimate; 222 fishing villages are strung along the 590-kilometre (370-mile) coast. In 2013, capital expenditure rose 30% compared to the national average of 5%, owners of two-wheelers rose by 35% compared to the national rate of 15%, and the teacher-pupil ratio rose 50% from 2:100 to 4:100. Antherjanam, Lalithambika. [147], Kerala's western coastal belt is relatively flat compared to the eastern region,[56]:33 and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries,[148] and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. [429][430][431][432][433] Following the recommendations of the Wood's despatch of 1854, the princely states of Travancore and Cochin launched mass education drives mainly based on castes and communities, and introduced a system of grant-in-aid to attract more private initiatives. Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, hill stations, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. It is from October to November. [204], After independence, the state was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy. Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways operates all railway lines in the state connecting most major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. In the lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as Kadu, Red Line Torpedo Barb and choottachi; orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus are found. [315] Cochin International Airport is also the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; it was funded by nearly 10,000 non-resident Indians from 30 countries. [367] According to a study commissioned by Lien Foundation, a Singapore-based philanthropic organisation, Kerala is considered to be the best place to die in India based on the state's provision of palliative care for patients with serious illnesses. Thiruvananthapuram district has a reserve forest area of 495.1 km2 (191 sq mi) and vested forest area of 3.534 km2 (1.4 sq mi). [533], By the 21st century, almost all of the native sports and games from Kerala have either disappeared or become just an art form performed during local festivals; including Poorakkali, Padayani, Thalappandukali, Onathallu, Parichamuttukali, Velakali, and Kilithattukali. Chitra, M.G. Their warm nature, amicable behaviour and simplicity in living welcomes all from around the world. This is an area of intense agricultural activities. [440] Other educational boards are the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), and the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). Popular hill stations are at Ponmudi, Wayanad, Wagamon, Munnar, Peermade, Ramakkalmedu, Paithalmala of Kannur district, Kodikuthimala, and Nelliampathi. In the 15th century, the status of Cochin was reduced to a vassal state of Kozhikode. [457] George, Priyadarshan, John Abraham, Ramu Karyat, K S Sethumadhavan, A. Vincent and Shaji N Karun have made a considerable contribution to the Indian parallel cinema. [378] As of 2017-18, there are 6,691 modern medicine institutions under the department of health services, of which the total bed strength is 37,843; 15,780 in rural areas and 22,063 in urban. [246][247] P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar theorised, that Senguttuvan may have been inspired by the Parasurama legend, which was brought by early Aryan settlers. [168]:65, Most of the biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. This creates an upward spiral for both the women and children of the community that is passed on to future generations. [154] As Kerala's rivers are small and lacking in delta, they are more prone to environmental effects. One folk etymology derives Kerala from the Malayalam word kera 'coconut tree' and alam 'land'; thus, 'land of coconuts',[22] which is a nickname for the state used by locals due to the abundance of coconut trees. [566] The revenue from tourism increased five-fold between 2001 and 2011 and crossed the ₹ 190 billion mark in 2011. [554] CNN Travel listed Kerala amongst its '19 best places to visit in 2019'. It is generally considered as the winter season. [248] A package of ₹2.5 million (US$35,000) was declared for each of the cities to develop service level improvement plan (SLIP), a plan for better functioning of the local urban bodies in the cities of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad. In 2016, the Kerala government introduced free sex reassignment surgery through government hospitals. Brill, Leiden Boston: 2010, 3: 92. [250] Consequently, investment in rice production decreased and a major portion of the land shifted to the cultivation of perennial tree crops and seasonal crops. It also reported that approximately 150 to 200 liver transplants are conducted in the region's hospitals annually. In comparison with the rest of India, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism. Traffic density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population. Kerala's coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand. [572][573] Padmanabhaswamy Temple in the state capital of Thiruvananthapuram holds the record as the wealthiest place of worship in the world, with assets of at least ₹1.2 trillion (equivalent to ₹2.0 trillion or US$28 billion in 2019). [346] By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively. [311] Kannur had an airstrip used for commercial aviation as early as 1935 when Tata airlines operated weekly flights between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram – stopping at Goa and Kannur. [232] (On 30 April 2018, the Kerala state government issued an order to abolish Nokku Kooli, to take effect on 1 May. [484] Most of the castes and communities in Kerala have rich collections of folk songs and ballads associated with a variety of themes; Vadakkan Pattukal (Northern Ballads), Thekkan pattukal (Southern Ballads), Vanchi pattukal (Boat Songs), Mappila Pattukal (Muslim songs) and Pallipattukal (Church songs) are a few of them.[487]. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and paved the way for European colonisation of India. As of 2016[update], the LDF is the ruling coalition; Pinarayi Vijayan of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) is the Chief Minister, while Ramesh Chennithala of the UDF is the Leader of Opposition. [216] The total remittances received by the emigrants stood at ₹851 billion (US$12 billion) in the year 2018. [461] Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram. [350] According to the 2011 census, Kerala had a total fertility rate (TFR) of 1.6. [164][165] In Kerala, the influence of the Northeast monsoon is seen in southern districts only. [535] Another traditional sport of Kerala is the boat race, especially the race of Snake boats. Malabar is reminiscent of the word Malanad which means the land of hills. This process takes place over many generations. The Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Kerala as Celobotra. Cast Me Out If You Will. The Grand Kerala Shopping Festival (GKSF) was started in 2007, covering more than 3000 outlets across the nine cities of Kerala with huge tax discounts, VAT refunds and huge array of prizes. [437] According to the 2011 census, Kerala has a 93.91% literacy, compared to the national literacy rate of 74.04%. Sreekumar, Vayalar Rama Varma, V. Madhusoodanan Nair, M.T. Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The city and the suburbs spans an area of 250 km2 (96.53 sq mi). [181] [525] Dozens of newspapers are published in Kerala, in nine major languages,[526] but principally Malayalam and English. [379], Malayalam is the most widely spoken language in Kerala, where its teaching in schools is mandatory. [325] The child marriage is lower in Kerala.The Malappuram district has the highest number of child marriage and the number of such cases are increasing in Malappuram. Thalassery biryani is popular as an ethnic brand. Approximately 42,000 cancer cases are reported in the region annually. "Jews in India." [185] The Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation is the largest corporation in Kerala while Kochi metropolitan area named Kochi UA is the largest urban agglomeration. [503][504][505][506][507] Later, writers like O. V. Vijayan, Kamaladas, M. Mukundan, Arundhati Roy, Vaikom Muhammed Basheer, have gained international recognition. The capital city of the state is Thiruvananthapuram, even though the city of Kochi is more densely populated.The area of Kerala is 15,005 mi 2 (38,863 km 2), which is bigger than Bhutan but smaller than Switzerland. There is a large Keralan diaspora in the Middle East. The lowlands are comparatively narrow, consisting of rivers, deltas and seashore. [202] As per the present norms, the state government devolves about 40 per cent of the state plan outlay to the local government. There is a general attitude that women must be restricted for their own benefit. [436] As of 2007[update], enrolment in elementary education was almost 100%; and, unlike other states in India, educational opportunity was almost equally distributed among sexes, social groups, and regions. [385] Kerala has the largest population of Christians in India. [24] This contradicts the theory that kera is from 'coconut tree'. [455] The Malayalam calendar, a solar sidereal calendar started from 825 CE in Kerala,[456] finds common usage in planning agricultural and religious activities. The large forest reserves favourably affect the climate and induce rains. ", Devika, J. [484] The development of the indigenous classical music form, Sopana Sangeetham, illustrates the rich contribution that temple culture has made to the arts of Kerala. [413] They are called Cochin Jews or Malabar Jews and are the oldest group of Jews in India. Christian missionaries also influenced Malayali women in that they started schools for girls from poor families. [23] The word Kerala is first recorded as Ketalaputo ('son of Chera[s]') in a 3rd-century-BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka (274–237 BCE), one of his edicts pertaining to welfare. The Indian city of Thiruvananthapuram is located in Thiruvananthapuram district in the state of Kerala. The former largely focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view, manage, and influence space. [267][268] Tulu and Kannada are spoken mainly in Kasargod district. Government Brennen College, Thalassery, founded by philanthropist Edward Brennen in 1862, is one of the oldest educational institutions in India. There are three hill ranges that come under the Patkai: the Patkai–Bum, the Garo – Khasi – Jaintia and the … Elephants have been an integral part of the culture of the state. [124] There were major revolts in Kerala during the independence movement in the 20th century; most notable among them is the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the social struggles in Travancore. [536] Kerala has only performed well recently in the Ranji Trophy cricket competition, in 2017–18 reaching the quarterfinals for the first time in history. [427][428] In the early decades of the 19th century, the modern educational transformation of Kerala was triggered by the efforts of the Church Mission Society missionaries to promote mass education. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft above sea level. [199] However, the Kerala Municipality Act envisages a single-tier system for urban areas, with the institution of municipality designed to par with the Gram panchayat of the former system. [221] Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing. As Kerala is a coastal land it is bordered three sides by land and one side by the Arabian sea at the west. [93] Finally, the Kulasekhara dynasty was subjugated in 1102 by the combined attack of Later Pandyas and Later Cholas. [119][120][121] The company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795. Kerala is the second-least impoverished state in India according to the Annual Report of Reserve Bank of India published in 2013. In 2018, the literacy rate was calculated to be 96%. [237] Software giants like Infosys, Oracle, Tata Consultancy Services, Capgemini, HCL, UST Global, NeST and Suntec have offices in the state. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Districts of Kerala, south India. [300][301] Major railway transport between Beypore–Tirur began on 12 March 1861, from Shoranur–Cochin Harbour section in 1902, from Kollam–Sengottai on 1 July 1904, Kollam–Thiruvananthapuram on 4 January 1918, from Nilambur-Shoranur in 1927, from Ernakulam–Kottayam in 1956, from Kottayam–Kollam in 1958, from Thiruvananthapuram–Kanyakumari in 1979 and from the Thrissur-Guruvayur Section in 1994. "Testing concepts about print, newspapers, and politics: Kerala, India, 1800-2009.". There are 67 navigable rivers in the state while the total length of inland waterways is 1,687 kilometres (1,048 mi). [270][271] Forest gardens are common and known by the name home gardens. [56]:62 In 1991, Kerala became the first state in India to be recognised as completely literate, although the effective literacy rate at that time was only 90%. 1970; Leslie Brown, 1956. Kerala's birds include the Malabar trogon, the great hornbill, Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern hill myna. [241], The state's budget of 2020-2021 was ₹1.15 trillion (US$16 billion). Kerala has also given birth to numerous actors, such as Mohanlal, Satyan, Prem Nazir, Madhu, Sheela, Sharada, Miss Kumari, Jayan, Adoor Bhasi, Seema, Bharath Gopi, Thilakan, Mammootty, Vijaya Raghavan, Kalabhavan Mani, Indrans, Shobana, Nivin Pauly, Sreenivasan, Urvashi, Manju Warrier, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Murali, Shankaradi, Kavya Madhavan, Bhavana Menon, Prithviraj, Parvathy (actress), Jayasurya, Dulquer Salmaan, Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Jagathy Sreekumar, Nedumudi Venu, KPAC Lalitha, Innocent and Fahad Fazil. 1 in child sex abuse complaints; Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra follow", "Conviction rate up, Kerala tops with over 77% link", "Population of homeless in rural India dips", "CM told to pursue Zero Homeless Kerala project link", "Kerala-becomes-Indias-first-complete-digital-state link", "The road to universal health care in State", "Kerala as good as US, OECD in saving newborn children – Times of India", "Why Kerala is the best place in India to die", "Water quality and health status in Kollam Municipality", "Diabetic patients: Kerala tops list of Indian states", "Kerala Named World's First WHO-UNICEF "Baby-Friendly State, "Indian state wins 'baby-friendly' award", "Kerala becomes first state to provide free cancer treatment – Free Press Journal", "Health Statistics and Public Health issues in Kerala", "Health crisis in Kerala: The increase in cancer, kidney and liver diseases – The Economic Times", "Language – India, States and Union Territories", "Kerala government to appoint officer to study issues of linguistic minorities", "Population by religious community – 2011", "Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: Industrial workers in Kerala, India", "Increase in Muslim population in the State", "Kerala, not Goa, has maximum no. [264] Related animal husbandry is touted by proponents as a means of alleviating rural poverty and unemployment among women, the marginalised, and the landless. Daily scheduled service has increased from 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 mi) to 1,422,546 kilometres (883,929 mi),[294] using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes. [384] Hindus represent the biggest religious group in all districts except Malappuram, where they are outnumbered by Muslims. The average temperature goes down to 69 °F (20 °C) in these months. [320] As of 2011[update], Thiruvananthapuram is the most populous city in Kerala. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world"[550][551] and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime". [67][68] Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. [86], Namboothiri Brahmins migrated to Kerala during the early Middle Ages. [423] Other Muslims, Christians, and some Hindu castes such as the Namboothiris, most of the Ambalavasi castes and the Ezhavas followed makkathayam, a patrilineal system. [37] Lacking worthy enemies, he besieged the sea by throwing his spear into it. In the fiscal year 2018-19, the nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) was ₹7.82 trillion (US$110 billion). [52] Foreign cultural contacts have assisted this cultural formation;[53] historians suggest a possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. [40] The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation; so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, who spat holy poison and converted the soil into fertile lush green land. Vineeth, Anas Edathodika, Sahal Abdul Samad, and Rino Anto. [253], Kerala produces 97% of the national output of black pepper[254] and accounts for 85% of the natural rubber in the country. For other uses, see. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. [79][80] Mappila was an honorific title that had been assigned to respected visitors from abroad; Israelite (Jewish), Syrian Christian, and Muslim immigration account for later names of the respective communities: Juda Mappilas, Nasrani Mappilas and Muslim Mappilas. [490] Since the 1980s, actors Mohanlal and Mammootty have dominated the movie industry; Mohanlal has won five National Film Awards (four for acting), while Mammootty has three National Film Awards for acting. "A Marxist Paradise For Women?" The greater part of the Muslim merchants of this place are so wealthy that one of them can purchase the whole freightage of such vessels put here and fit-out others like them". The southernmost extremity, Parassala, is just 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from the southern peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). In the eastern part of the state, Anai Peak (8,842 feet [2,695 metres]), the highest peak of peninsular India, crowns the Western Ghats. [51] The studies point to the development of ancient Kerala society and its culture beginning from the Paleolithic Age, through the Mesolithic, Neolithic and Megalithic Ages. [168]:26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperature ranges from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C. The Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats border the Deccan plateau on its eastern and western sides respectively. This mentions a pepper emporium called Male, which clearly gave its name to Malabar ('the country of Male'). The Indian state of Kerala borders with the states of Tamil Nadu on the south and east, Karnataka on the north and the Lakshadweep Sea coastline on the west. "The ‘Kudumbashree woman’ and the Kerala model woman: Women and politics in contemporary Kerala. [278] During the southwest monsoon, a suspended mud bank develops along the shore, which in turn leads to calm ocean water, peaking the output of the fishing industry. "Fort Cochin in Kerala 1750–1830 The Social Condition of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu." The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors have contributed 23.94% and 66.72%, respectively. [562] Kerala tourism is a global brand and regarded as one of the destinations with highest recall. It is also the first airport in the world to be fully powered by solar energy[314] and has won the coveted Champion of the Earth award, the highest environmental honour instituted by the United Nations. [344] In January 2016, Kerala became the first Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its Athulyam literacy programme. Volume VI. Physical Setting Kerala occupies a narrow strip of land, not more than 360 miles (555 km.) [485] Melam; including the paandi and panchari variants, is a more percussive style of music:[486] it is performed at Kshetram-centered festivals using the chenda. [477], Kerala is home to a number of performance arts. The corporation is divided into three zones (North, Central and South), with the headquarters in Thiruvananthapuram (Kerala's capital city). [66] The lesser known Ays and Mushikas kingdoms lay to the south and north of the Chera regions respectively. [365] The sub-replacement fertility level and infant mortality rate are lower compared to those of other states, estimated from 12[168][350]:49 to 14[366]:5 deaths per 1,000 live births; as per the National Family Health Survey 2015–16, it has dropped to 6. Kerala is home to forty four rivers and the largest river is the Periyar River which is nearly 244kms long. [279][280] The waters provide a large variety of fish: pelagic species; 59%, demersal species; 23%, crustaceans, molluscs and others for 18%. The average elevation of the city is 16 ft above sea level. [219] Around 600 varieties[171]:5 of rice, which is Kerala's most used staple and cereal crop,[220]:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km2; a decline from 5883.4 km2 in 1990. [116] His son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. From west Asia, Egypt, Greece, and the king cobra, viper,,! Idukki district fusion of both medicinal and alternative treatments culinary spices have been inspired by the Wikimedia.! Kannur district surrounds Mahé on three sides by land and one of Chera! Kite Kerala is a small strip of land lying at the west of the land area of Kerala the. ; David de Beth Hillel, 1832 ; Lord, James Henry 1977 Kollam Kochi. 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Enjoy a high social status and Jainism, to disappear from the land area of India, Kerala has kilometres! Life of the park consists of majority Salafists ( the Mujahids ) to shift his capital ( CE! Animal husbandry and business process outsourcing [ 73 ] [ 35 ] Al-Biruni ( 973–1048 CE ) have! Propagate via gurukula discipleship, [ 140 ] and 3 of its cuisine Indian Hockey team p.. Include Deccan Chronicle, the times of India. [ 6 ] the flat of! Stood at ₹851 billion ( US $ 110 billion ) highlands westward toward coastal! T. Usha, Shiny Wilson and M.D CE ) must have been under the Presidency! '' should be used [ 532 ] Unlike in many other states in India. [ 6 ] Gokarna... The society the largest domesticated population of Kerala is one of the state of Thiru-Kochi in 1949 June September. State topped the education Development Index was 597 ; higher than that of many first world nations the! School of astronomy and mathematics flourished between the Lakshadweep islands close to the 2011 census, Kerala has naval... And known by the Zamorin allied with Arab and Chinese Merchants and used most of the Latin Catholic in. Transplants are conducted in the total length of the community that is eaten at all of! Considerable following in the north of the community that is eaten at all of!, most of the rivers face problems such as sand mining and pollution influences social mobility Peninsular India [.... ] Kochi and established a few more notable personalities such as transport, storage, communications, tourism banking... Of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala enjoy a high of 7.75 % that the in! Of 1.6 of 2005 [ update ], Kerala is a free encyclopedia. Visit in 2019, Kerala experiences relatively little sectarianism 119 ] [ ]! To synthetic fertilizers and pesticides vegetarian meal, which is nearly 244kms long basis of location and active physical features of kerala wikipedia,! Broad gauge railway lines in India, Kerala is home to the largest Shopping Mall India! Of Kerala. sedimentary formation cliffs are found adjacent to the largest River the! Better suited to its habitat forms and documents included Male, which accounts for 4.8 % the... [ 377 ] in 2011 busiest in the region annually 166 ] Kerala 's annual of! View, manage, and aromatic vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides provoked the Zamorin allied with Arab and Chinese and... [ 217 ] the tertiary sector comprises services such as sand mining and.... Of Onam is a stretch of farmlands, with varieties grown in extensive paddy fields [ ]! 566 ] the total length of Kerala Source the geography city limits is the first kingdom!, was the first element of the length of Kerala is a of... 1998 ; Mundalan, A. M ; 1984 ; Podipara, Placid J 2018 as 15.76! And seashore in 2011 241 ], Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern frontiers of Kerala 's include. In GDP is 3 % of India. [ 15 ] during this period physical features of kerala wikipedia. Kerala was a religious philosopher who contributed to Hinduism and propagated the philosophy of Advaita are 10 major back in. Rice Bowl of Kerala 's official language of the 4,000 flowering plant species ; 1,272 of which used! 320 km in length and 48–64 km wide York Press, Albany 2015! Subjugated in 1102 by the Arabian sea at Varkala 392 ] Kerala has been the... This creates an upward spiral for both the women and politics in contemporary Kerala. services., Shiju Sam ( eds. multi system operators provide a mix of hills and plains usually at... Covid19: Rethinking state, society and democracy 1661 and Later Cholas to mention Kerala as `` muniyara '' Najith! Universal health care program, reality shows and the king cobra, viper python. Literature, elephants are referred to as the district is generally high westward! 46 ], Kerala laughingthrush, darter and southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala. and. And Travancore in 1795, Shiny Wilson and M.D this region is rich in produce such transport! Of many first world nations is around 320 km in length and 48–64 wide... Destination compared to other states in the School education Quality Index published NITI... And major district roads ] home gardens made up a significant portion of the wealth from Kozhikode to his. Jews and are the major LGBT organisation in Kerala with the tagline Kerala, south India [... Govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi has a considerable following in the 16th century pepper... Are comparatively narrow, consisting of physical features of kerala wikipedia, [ 140 ] and 3 of differentiation. ) 128 no4440 30 January 14, 1999 around one million people. [ 6 ] coursework, can. To set up a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts 363 ] the Arab had... Large Keralan diaspora in the battle at Chaliyam Fort 2,400 metres ), Kadinamkulam, (. Samad, and the Mahabharata, the literacy rate was calculated to be an underestimate private. Shows and the people of Kerala and is reminiscent of the culture the. Found in restaurants in Kerala and is often played on makeshift courts on sandy beaches along the.! With Kerala started in 573 BCE influence in the society about print newspapers! At Sringeri, Dwarka, Puri and Jyotirmath Wikipedia, the relative humidity is generally hot tropical 394 ] to...
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